term "working conditions" is interpreted in different ways.This term can refer to only the external substantive human environment during the course of employment, or all factors that affect the living standards of working people and the process of reproduction of labor.The most common working conditions - all factors acting in the course of work per person.There are several groups of them, on which the production environment:
- social and psychological;
- organizational and economic.
Consider the features of each of them.
Hygiene factors working conditions determine the influence of the external environment on human.An employer is interested in the efficiency of staff is required to monitor compliance of these factors, the modern norms and standards.Activities aimed at improving working conditions, primarily involves the improvement of technology and engineering as well as production processes.
microclimate working environment includes hum
aesthetic conditions factors
aesthetic conditions of exposure of workers by creating an emotional background of the production.The design of the production of the interior is the architectural and artistic interior space of industrial buildings.With its creation, consider:
- volume and area of the building,
- purpose of the building,
- key moments of the process,
- nature of the equipment,
- work and rest of employees and many other features of labor.
an important role in creating a favorable working environment plays a color scheme premises.It is a means of communication and means of providing psychological comfort.
In use for color information transmission is not justified by a combination of more than three colors:
- for governing bodies (yellow, orange);
- for parts servants background workpiece (cream, blue, etc.)
- for other painted surfaces (light-green and green-blue).
aesthetic factors determining working conditions also include landscaping company.Trees, flowers, bushes, clean the air, regulate the thermal regime, reduce noise, reduce dust, decorate and create comfort.When selecting plants for landscaping industrial enterprise oriented to their hygienic properties.Recreational workers who perform repetitive operations, decorated with flowers with warm colors.
psychophysiological factors affecting the working conditions - the value of the dynamic, static and physical stress, the pace of work, working posture, tension attention, monotony, neuro-emotional stress, physical and aesthetic discomfort.Regulated by a combination of mental and physical stress has a significant effect on the reduction of working fatigue.
Socio-psychological factors of working conditions, characterize relationships in the team.They create the appropriate mental attitude and affect the performance of employees.
operability demonstrates the quantitative aspect of labor and associated labor efficiency.It is limited and depends on the amount of energy that a person can consume without prejudice to the body.The energy loss is characterized by excessive fatigue, loss of strength, reduced coordination and perception of memory, representation, imagination, etc.Therefore, it is important to consider the human emotions caused by not only the personal employment, but the aesthetic design of the environment, industrial and personal relationships.Reducing the adverse impact of psychophysical factors achieved:. Decrease in physical effort of workers, optimizing the rate of work, selecting the most optimal posture, decrease mental stress, etc.
Changing employment rate leads to stress the nervous system and loss of previouslyassimilated rhythm that requires the development of a new stereotype and an increase in run-time labor operations.Arrhythmia - a sharp change of small physical and neuro-mental effort and slow pace of work fast pace and an accelerated effort, a very negative impact on health and the health of workers.For the organization of work for the rhythmic change is necessary to observe the hourly chart, as the daily load is distributed based on physiological laws of human development.Load the first and last hours to be 10-15% lower than in the middle of the day.
Rhythm labor during the day, month and year is provided through improved operational and production planning, allowing uniform load of workers throughout the period and exclude deadlines.
In today's world, the artist receives a huge amount of information, which leads to a permanent neuro-mental stress.Evidence-based occupational standards are designed to optimize the nervous and mental stress.They are established taking into account the amount of information that can be quickly perceive, analyze, and based on it to make the right decision.
alternation of different types of load - this is another way to reduce the neuro-mental stress.It is recommended to alternate: the work of different levels of complexity and intensity of physical work with the neuro-mental.Of great importance to reduce the neuro-psychological stress plays to maintain a favorable psychological climate among all team members.
Due to the fact that the production conditions of work are analyzed in terms of their effects on the body worker, the assessment of the real state must be based on the accounting consequences of this influence.In the analysis it is important to consider all factors of working conditions.Specific working conditions lead to three basic definitions of the functional state of the organism: normal, borderline, abnormal.