Beads - one the oldest human decorations.Want to know why and how of making beads?The first beads were made from clay, forming them directly on the thread or wire threaded through a straw.During roasting thread or straw burned, and beads with holes remained.manufacture of ceramic beads technology has not changed in our time.They are still formed in the thread, just do it and firing machine guns produced in a muffle furnace, and then pour the glaze beads.
- Wooden beads - beads grind out on special machines, after which each bead is drilled hole.
- beads made of semiprecious stones as machined from a stone, and in each of them separately drilled hole.
- Metal beads - before cast of precious metals in special forms and hand made hole.But beads of metal are very heavy and it is gradually replaced by glass, which was made of a glass tube, to which was applied a thin layer of gold or silver, and the top dressing tube larger.The resulting composite tube is cut into pieces, beads, which had the luster of gold, but weigh much less and cost less.Sach beads with metallic luster is produced by coating with enamel or metal salts already finished glass or plastic beads.
However, most often made of glass beads.There are a number of manufacturing technologies.
- Inflated biser.- two metal sticks are taken to manufacture.The tip of one scoop a number of windows, and the tip of the second rod stretched thin glass thread or rod, which is subsequently cut and used for the production of beads.
- Twisted beads.The glass rod is melted and is wound onto the wire.Thereafter, the wire is heated and it is wound on the glass spreads out, forming a sheath around the wire.After cooling, the wire is compressed and preparation for the beads can be easily removed.
- Exhaust beads are made by drawing a glass tube with a cavity inside.The finished tube is cut into pieces, beads.
- Braided beads - hot glass yarn braided wire.
- Pressed beads - beads attached form using a press or a special of pressing tongs.
- Spiral Beads - hot glass fibers are wound on a wire spiral.
- Baked beads - beads made of glass powder, which is poured into a mold and sintered.
Tubes-billets are cut into pieces and get long, so-called chopped beads.If the beads need round it with a special obrazivom charged into the drum.During rotation and heating, and melted beads are ground to a spherical shape.Subsequently, the washed beads from obraziva and is glazed as required.
All these methods are used today to produce handmade beads.In the industrial manufacture of special machines are used, the beads are made by stamping.This allows you to automate the process and obtain high-quality beads desired size and shape.
However, in our time the most popular is the plastic beads.The technology of its production is the same as the glass and, only for making temperature somewhat lower than the glass.With hand-made beads of plastic used method HERZ-TS plastic strip on the wire.Such beads are easily recognizable by the thin barely visible lines, which remains on the side of the beads.It
plastic beads - the easiest of all, the most commonly used in beading, knitting and embroidery, which recently again widespread.We told you how to make beads.